African Development Review, v. 28, n. 4, pp. 444–461. Abstract: This paper examines the strategic fit of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in Mozambican banks, using a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to compute the impact of contextual variables on efficiency scores and returns to scale of the resulting virtual merged banks. In an ‘M&A DEA’ model, different pairs of bidder and target companies are considered. In the first stage an M&A DEA model is used. Simplex regression is adopted in the second stage. The results reveal that ownership (public or foreign) impacts virtual efficiency levels. However, the findings also show that care must be exercised with M&A because the resultant banking organization could be oversized when foreign ownership is predominant, especially when public ownership is low. Given the relative sizes of the markets in terms of productive resources, M&A involving Mozambican banks can easily lead to decreasing returns to scale. Thus, a greater emphasis should be given to merging purely public banks with foreign ones and vice versa.