Health Care Management Science, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 126–138. Abstract: This paper reports on the use of different approaches for assessing efficiency of a sample of major Brazilian for-profit hospitals. Starting out with the bootstrapping technique, several DEA estimates were generated, allowing the use of confidence intervals and bias correction in central estimates to test for significant differences in efficiency levels and input-decreasing/output-increasing potentials. The findings indicate that efficiency is mixed in Brazilian for-profit hospitals. Opportunities for accommodating future demand appear to be scarce and strongly dependent on particular conditions related to the accreditation and specialization of a given hospital.