Transportation Planning and Technology, v. 41, n. 6, pp. 573-599. Abstract: Performance analysis has become a vital part of the management practices in the logistics infrastructure. Although there are numerous applications using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency in ports and airports, research on railway efficiency remains scarce. Most of the efficiency studies of railways assume that inputs and outputs are known with absolute precision. Here, we compare Stochastic-DEA and Fuzzy-DEA models to assess, respectively, how the underlying randomness and fuzziness impact efficiency levels in railway operations in six different Asian countries: Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Findings reveal that conclusions with respect to the ranking of these railways may vary substantially depending upon the type of model chosen, although efficiency scores are similar to some extent when compared within the ambits of Stochastic-DEA and Fuzzy-DEA models. Additionally, modeling choices on fuzziness, rather than randomness, appear to be the most critical source for variations in efficiency rankings.